Political Emigration 1934
Austrians in the Spanish Civil War
1938: Jewish Mass Escape
# Expelled Culture
Between Longing and Intergration
Political Exile
Exile and Resistance
The Return

As a result of the expulsion of its Jewish representatives, entire scientific schools came to a halt, such as the world-renowned neopositivist »Vienna Circle« (a.o., Rudolf Carnap, Kurt Gödel, Otto Neurath, Edgar Zilsel) or else in the area of psychology and psychoanalysis (a.o., Anna and Sigmund Freud, Paul Federn, Karl and Charlotte Bühler), theoretical physics (a.o., Erwin Schrödinger, Wolfgang Pauli, Lise Meitner), social sciences (a.o., Marie Jahoda, Paul Lazarsfeld), and art history (a.o., Ernst Gombrich, Hilde Zaloscer). Neither technology, patenting, or sports nor art and culture were excepted: Theater (a.o., Max Reinhardt, Otto Tausig), film (a.o., Leon Askin, Billy Wilder), cabaret (a.o., Karl Farkas), music (a.o., Arnold Schönberg, Ernst Krenek, Robert Stolz, Bruno Walter, Herbert Zipper), dance (a.o., Otto Werberg), painting (a.o., Oskar Kokoschka, Josef Floch), sculpturing (a.o., Fritz Wotruba, Anna Schindler), architecture (Herbert Eichholzer, Margarete Schütte-Lihotzky, Josef Frank, Oskar Wlach), photography (a.o., Trude Fleischmann), etc. Well-known Austrian authors escaped as well: Hermann Broch, Elias Canetti, Ödön von Horvath, Robert Musil, Robert Neumann, Josef Roth, Manes Sperber, Hilde Spiel, Friedrich Torberg, Franz Werfel, and Stefan Zweig. The artists, authors, and intellectuals in exile were defamed by the NS-regime, their work denounced as »degenerated,« and prohibited.


Erwin Schrödinger
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Erwin Schrödinger (1887–1961), 1938 emigration, 1933 Nobel prize in Physics.

Viktor Hess
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Viktor Hess (1883–1964), 1938 emigration to New York, 1936 Nobel prize in Physics.

Expelled Science, Art, and Culture