Deportations of Jews
First Deportations 1939
»General Gouvernement«
# Lodz ghetto
»Reichskommissariat Ostland«
»Operation Reinhard«
Flight, Emigration and Death
Demography 1938-1945

Within the framework of the mass deportations to Lodz/Litzmannstadt of 20,000 Jewish men, women and children, ordered by the Reichssicherheitshauptamt (RSHA), rather more than 5000 Jewish victims from Vienna arrived in Lodz between 15 October and 2 November 1941. The Jewish deportees came from the »Altreich«, from Austria, from the »Protectorate« of Bohemia and Moravia and from Luxembourg, and included 5000 Sinti and Roma. Over 78 percent of them were older than 45, over 41 percent over 60, and almost 9 percent were over 70. Well over half of them were women.

Within a few weeks the mortality rate among the Viennese Jews rose sharply. By May 1942 771 of them had died of hunger, disease, exhaustion and despair.

Many of the Viennese Jews were categorised as »incapable of work« simply because of their age and were therefore transported from May 1942 onwards to Chelmno/Kulmhof were they were murdered in mobile killing installations, the »gasvans.« By the beginning of summer 1942 the SS had killed about half of all the people who had been deported in October/November 1941 from Germany, Austria, Bohemia and Moravia. Of the 5000 Viennese Jews only 615 were still alive in the autumn of 1942. When the ghetto in Lodz was broken up in August 1944 and all the inmates deported to Auschwitz, only between 300 and 400 were still alive. »Selection« in Auschwitz and forced labor in the various concentration camps cost further lives. Only 34 of the 5000 Jews deported from Vienna to Lodz were still alive when the camps were liberated.



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Leopold Gelb (on the left) and the married couple Mathilde and Wilhelm Gelb were deported to Lodz on 23 Oktober 1941.

Extract from the deportee list of transport No. 10 from Vienna to Lodz List of Viennese Jews in the Lodz ghetto

Deportations to the Lodz ghetto, October/November 1941