Deportations of Jews
First Deportations 1939
»General Gouvernement«
Lodz ghetto
»Reichskommissariat Ostland«
»Operation Reinhard«
# Flight, Emigration and Death
Demography 1938-1945
Flight, Emigration and Death

With the dismemberment of Czechoslovakia and the onset of World War II, whose initial phase was marked by a series of victories by the German Wehrmacht, the majority of refugees on the European continent increasingly found itself back in the sphere of National Socialist influence.

read more ...

Karl MeiselAfter the civil war in February 1934 and the ban on Austrian Social Democracy, Austrian Social Democrats and Communists, including Jewish functionaries, escaped across the border to democratic Czechoslovakia. Further refugees, most of them Jews, followed after the »Anschluss« in 1938.

read more ...

Marked houswsAfter the »Anschluss« in 1938, Hungary closed her borders against any Austrian Jewish immigrants. Nevertheless, around 4400 Jews from Austria took refuge here. A quarter of those were Jews who held Hungarian citizenship and whose bases of subsistence had for a long time been in Austria.

read more ...

Georg HalpernAfter the »Anschluss« in March 1938, many Jews and politically persecuted people fled to France. The exile organizations of the Austrian Social Democrats and the Communists were also transferred from Czechoslovakia to Paris in 1938.

read more ...

Ignaz SalzmannBefore the occupation of Belgium in the spring of 1940, the Jewish population consisted of about 90,000 persons, who for the greater part were immigrants and new arrivals not, or not yet in possession of Belgian citizenship – about 1000 refugees from Austria among them.

read more ...
The Netherlands

Hans L. PrzibramAfter the occupation of Austria in March 1938, about 500 Austrians affected by the Nuremberg laws fled to the Netherlands. In accordance with the Dutch government, the »Comité voor Bijzondere Joodse Belangen« tried to facilitate the emigration of the refugees to other countries.

read more ...

Adolf and Berta BergerThe situation of refugees in Italy was characterised by insecurity and the feeling of constant threat. Despite its close relations to Nazi-Germany and the country's own racial legislation, Fascist Italy played an important role as first flight destination for those expelled from Germany and Austria on account of its at first relatively liberal immigration and residency requirements.

read more ...

Karl (»Kari«) KrissOn account of insufficient source material it is difficult to establish the fate as well as the numbers of Jews from Austria who after the »Anschluss« had fled to the dictatorial Kingdom of Yugoslavia. They were there surprised by the German invasion in 1941.

read more ...

Flight, Emigration and Death