Political Emigration 1934
Austrians in the Spanish Civil War
1938: Jewish Mass Escape
Expelled Culture
# Between Longing and Intergration
Political Exile
Exile and Resistance
The Return

The masses of emigrants suffered mentally as well as materially. In various countries Jewish, Christian, and political aid commitees formed. As a result of the strained economic situation, some countries refused to provide asylum seekers with any legal work options. In many cases women had an easier time to find work and earning opportunities and provided for the family. With the outbreak of war, the situation deteriorated for the refugees: By now »enemy aliens,« they were interned such as in Belgium, France, and Great Britain, but also in neutral Switzerland. The vanishing of the former social environment as well as the confrontation with language barriers and a new culture, resulted for countless emigrants in a sense of loss and exclusion. Many remained »traveler between two worlds.« Among the younger people, the majority saw themselves in their host country as citizens of a new homeland.


Internment camp of Gordola
» click see larger image

Austrians in the Swiss internment camp of Gordola.

Internment camp in Canada Prison on the Isle of Mauritius
Austrian emigrants in Shanghai »Calls for help by bottle mail«
Identity card for foreigners in Shanghai Identity card
Bread ration card Protective passport

Between Longing, Uprooting, and Intergration