Political Emigration 1934
Austrians in the Spanish Civil War
1938: Jewish Mass Escape
Expelled Culture
Between Longing and Intergration
# Political Exile
Exile and Resistance
The Return

In most immigration countries the opportunities for an efficient exile policy or for the development of exile organizations were limited. The most favorable conditions existed in France (until 1940), Great Britain, and the USA; this is where the Austrian political exile converged. Still, even in those countries the exile organizations had to overcome difficulties as well. Some organizations, such as e.g., those in Latin America, were marked by a strong cultural orientation. The majority of the Jewish refugees kept their distance from the Austrian political exile. Nevertheless, also many Jews were active in Austrian exile organizations. Besides Socialists and Communists, anti-Nazi Legitimists, Conservatives, and representa-tives of the corporate state had escaped. The antagonisms between the political camps continued in exile. Here the crucial question was regarding the future sovereignty of Austria. Only after the three Allies Great Britain, USA, and the Soviet Union had declared this to be their war goal in the »Moscow Declaration« of autumn 1943, almost all exile politicians and -organizations conformed to this position.


Bruno Kreisky and Willy Brandt
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Bruno Kreisky (second from left) and Willy Brandt (fourth from left), in Sweden in 1943.

Austrian Communists in Sweden Presentation of a field kitchen to Winston Churchill
»Austrian Centre«, Swiss Cottage (London) Herbert Steiner
»Zeitspiegel« (editorial staff) »Young Austria« choir
Otto Habsburg Accíon Republicana Austriaca de México
Rudolf Neuhaus Zurich performance of »Mother Courage and her Children«
Young Communists in Sweden Invitation to an evening program

Political Exile