Austria 1918-1938
# 1935-1937

January 1935
424,000 unemployed in Austria.

2 October 1935
East African kingdom of Abyssinia attacked by Fascist Italy. Finally conquered and annexed in May 1936. In the aftermath, Germany and Italy draw closer together in their foreign policy goals.

11 July 1936
Austro-German treaty of understanding (»Juliabkommen«) defines Austria as »second German state.« Germany recognizes the sovereignty of the Austrian state. Austria agrees to pass an amnesty for charged and sentenced Nazis and to include representatives of the "national" opposition close to the Nazis in the new cabinet.

22 August 1936
Amnesty on the basis of the above treaty, many Nazis released from prison.

24 August 1936
German Reich passes a law on tourist traffic with Austria, 1000-Mark fee abolished.

Autumn 1936
The first of roughly 1400 Austrians, mainly Socialists and Communists, start to arrive in Spain to fight in the International Brigades on the side of the Republic against the forces of Fascism.

4 February 1937
Founding of a seven-man committee of prominent Nazis to enable closer co-operation with the government.

17 June 1937
Establishment of the Volkspolitisches Referat, a department within the Vater-ländische Front to bring the Nazis closer to the Schuschnigg regime. Seyß-Inquart plays the role of peace-making intermediary.

24 June 1937
German directive for the war preparedness of the Wehrmacht. A special section deals with the invasion of Austria (»Operation Otto«).

5 November 1937
Hossbach memorandum: Hitler reveals his next foreign policy goals to army leaders: the annexation of Austria and Czechoslovakia.


Federal Chancellor Schuschnigg at a »Federal muster« of the »Vaterländische Front«
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Federal Chancellor Schuschnigg at a »Federal muster« of the Vaterländische Front, 1937.

Österreichisches Jungvolk
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Österreichisches Jungvolk, the youth movement of the regime, at the »Federal muster« on 18 October 1937.

Alfred Klahr Ernst Karl Winter